Level of Service Inventory – Revised (LSI-R)

Level of Service Inventory

Don Andrews, Ph.D. & James Bonta, Ph.D.

Age Range 16 years and older
Administration Time 30–45 minutes
Administration Type Structured Interview
Qualification Level B

A comprehensive risk/needs assessment for offender treatment planning and placement. The ‘Level of Service Inventory – Revised’ is a combined and integrated risk/needs assessment instrument for use with general populations of offenders. It is now used in well over 200 countries and jurisdictions throughout the world (including large parts of the USA, Australia and New Zealand) and is becoming the international measure of risk and need in offender assessment. By the autumn 2001 over 50 Criminal Justice organisations in the United Kingdom have trained their staff to use the instrument, most recently the Republic of Ireland Probation & Welfare Service. Its success is due to a steady and prolonged period of development and testing lasting over twenty-five years, the result of which is that the instrument is now both reliable as a predictor and usable from the practitioner’s point of view.

The LSI-R provides an estimate of risk of reconviction for individual offenders over twelve months, and a profile of criminogenic needs. It is also increasingly being used to provide data about risk and need to help inform decisions about the design and delivery of services to offenders. The performance of the LSI-R has been extensively studied in England and Wales by Professor Peter Raynor at the University of Wales, Swansea, and in a recent report submitted to the Home Office the LSI-R was shown to be the most reliable predictor of its sort available in this country. The initial findings from a further study undertaken by Professor Raynor into the performance of the LSI-R in the States of Jersey again showed it to be a highly reliable predictor of recidivism.

Over 3500 criminal justice professionals in the Criminal Justice Services in the United Kingdom and Ireland have been trained to use the LSI-R. It is being used at the pre-sentence stage in the preparation of SERs and PSRs, and in the process of supervision planning. It is also being used to assess changes in risk and need at various points during the supervision process. Professor Raynor’s recent study showed that changes in LSI-R risk scores reflect actual changes in risk of reconviction.

The LSI-R has been developed over the past twenty-five years by Professor Don Andrews and Dr. James Bonta and is based on a combination of static and dynamic risk factors. It was developed in consultation with probation staff in Ontario, and has been subject to constant modification and improvement. As a result the LSI-R is now a 54 item test which combines reliability as a risk predictor and ‘user friendliness’. There is growing evidence that in the hands of experienced users LSI-R does not add significantly to the time taken to assess offenders, but does improve the quality of the assessments. Research studies into the LSI-R continue both in this country and North America, a recent development being that there is evidence to show that the LSI-R may also be a reliable predictor of violent conduct. Potential future uses include the use of LSI-R assessments to inform decisions concerning placements in Community Service, and within the mental health field for the assessment of Drug and Alcohol abusers, including exploration of the issues raised by dual diagnosis.


Reference Name Price VAT applicable
P-LS2POC LSI-R Manual £89.00 No
P-LS5POO LSI-R QuikScore Forms (25/pkg) £68.00 Yes