Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk – (SAPROF) and New SAPROF-Youth Version

SAPROF-Youth Version

Michiel de Vries Robbé, Miranda Geers, Manon Stapel, Ed Hilterman & Vivienne de Vogel

The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk was developed in 2007 by Vivienne de Vogel (Van der Hoeven Kliniek, forensic psychiatric hospital), Corine de Ruiter (University of Maastricht), Yvonne Bouman (Pompestichting, forensic psychiatric hospital) and Michiel de Vries Robbé (Van der Hoeven Kliniek).

The SAPROF is a checklist for the structured assessment of protective factors for violent behaviour. Following the SPJ principle, the SAPROF is designed to be used in combination with other SPJ risk assessment instruments like the HCR-20. The addition of the structured assessment of protective factors creates a more balanced risk assessment for future violence risk, enabling a more positive approach to (sexual) violence prevention. The SAPROF aims to contribute to an increasingly accurate and well-rounded assessment of risk for future violent behaviour. Moreover, the dynamic positive approach of protective factors aims to create new opportunities for effective and achievable treatment interventions.

Research at the Van der Hoeven Kliniek in The Netherlands shows good inter-rater reliability and good predictive validity for violent incidents during treatment as well as for violent recidivism after treatment. Findings have been equally good for violent offenders as for sexual offenders. Moreover, the changeability of the protective factors in the SAPROF during treatment provides an indication for the usability of the SAPROF as a guideline for positive treatment planning and risk management. Frequent users of the SAPROF in forensic psychiatry state that the instrument can be helpful in formulating treatment goals, justifying stages of treatment, atoning treatment phasing and facilitating risk communication.

The SAPROF-Youth Version has been developed as an SPJ tool specifically for the assessment of protective factors for violence risk in juveniles. The youth version of the SAPROF is an entirely new tool, backed-up by extensive youth literature review, pilot testing and user feedback. The SAPROFYV aims to complement juvenile violence risk assessment and treatment with a strengths-focused approach and is intended to be used alongside predominantly risk-focused tools such as the SAVRY, YLS/CMI, J-SOAP etc.


Reference Name Price VAT applicable
SAP1 Structured Assessment of Protective
Factors for Violence Risk – Manual
£45.00 No
SAP2 Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for
Violence Risk –Youth Version Manual
£45.00 No